Green processing technology in the manufacturing o

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Green processing technology in agricultural machinery manufacturing


in the wave of global economic transfer, China has become a major manufacturer of mechanical and electrical products, and has gradually become a manufacturing base in the world. Agricultural machinery manufacturing industry, as one of the important industries of machinery manufacturing industry, although it has mastered a considerable number of advanced process manufacturing technology, many agricultural machinery products have basically reached or approached the level of foreign machinery. However, on the one hand, agricultural machinery manufacturing is an important industry to create human wealth, on the other hand, it is one of the sources of environmental pollution. Therefore, we should not only produce marketable agricultural machinery products to occupy the market, but also ensure the green degree of production, so that green production technology has become a technology widely concerned by agricultural machinery enterprises

green production is the process of transforming the idea of green design into final products, mainly including green process, green production equipment, green environment and green management. Green production requires that it can significantly save energy and resources than conventional methods; At the same time, avoid or reduce the harm to human body to the greatest extent in the production process, such as electromagnetic radiation, noise, toxic gas and toxic liquid pollution to the environment

green production technology is an advanced manufacturing technology based on traditional technology and combined with new technologies such as material science, surface technology and control technology. Its goal is to make rational use of resources, reduce costs and reduce serious pollution to the environment. At present, the green production technologies that have been used in agricultural machinery manufacturing include dry cutting technology and dry grinding 196 degree American standard liquid nitrogen impact test low-temperature tank, which have four hard advantages: national intellectual property rights; Super large stainless steel freezer; Computer control; Professional liquid nitrogen cryogenic technology! Jinan new era Gold Testing Instrument Co., Ltd. new microcomputer controlled American standard liquid nitrogen low temperature grooving technology, etc

1 dry cutting technology

1.1 green characteristics of dry cutting technology

because dry cutting does not use cutting fluid, it completely eliminates a series of negative effects caused by cutting fluid, so it has obvious green characteristics. Its characteristics are as follows:

- the formed chips are clean and easy to recycle

- the corresponding cutting fluid treatment device is omitted, the production equipment is simplified, and the production cost is reduced

- no environmental pollution and cleaner production

1.2 key technology of dry cutting

in dry cutting, the performance of cutting tools and machine tools and the material characteristics of machined parts all affect the effect of dry cutting. In order to carry out dry cutting smoothly, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the whole process system and create a production environment suitable for dry cutting. At present, the high-speed dry cutting technology is still developing, and the following problems need further study

1.2.1 tool technology

requirements for dry cutting tools: the cross-sectional shape and geometric angle of the tool should enable the tool to produce small cutting force and create a batch of friction forces of a nationally famous brand of Shandong new materials; Tool materials and coating materials have good high temperature resistance; The structure of the tool is suitable for high-speed cutting. The strength and fracture toughness of the tool body and clamping structure are high, and the rigidity is good, so as to ensure safety and reliability

with the continuous emergence of new tool materials, the performance of the tool continues to improve, and it can fully withstand the adverse conditions of dry cutting. In dry cutting, by reasonably selecting tool materials and cutting parameters, reducing the generation of cutting heat and reducing the friction during processing, the durability of dry cutting tools can be effectively improved and dry cutting can be carried out smoothly in production. At present, the cutting tool materials suitable for dry machining include ultrafine grained cemented carbide, ceramics, cermets, PCBN, CBN, PCD, etc. The technologies that need to be developed mainly include tool coating technology, tool material technology, design of tool structure and geometric parameters, reliable tool monitoring devices, etc

1.2.2 dry cutting machine tools

dry cutting machine tools are required to have high spindle speed, feed speed and good rigidity, and can give full play to the material properties of dry cutting tools. In order to realize dry cutting, two problems should be handled well in the selection of machine tool performance: one is the rapid heat dissipation in the cutting area; The second is the rapid discharge of chips. During dry cutting, the heat generated in the machining area of the machine tool is large. If these heat is not discharged in time, the machine tool will have serious thermal deformation. This will not only affect the machining accuracy of the workpiece, but also affect the reliability of the machine tool. Therefore, dry cutting machine tool has its particularity in structure and function

in terms of the rigidity and structural design of machine tools, many manufacturers use artificial granite as the bed material of machine tools to improve the rigidity of the bed or change the structure of the bed, integrate the column and the base as a whole, and use new cast iron materials to improve its overall rigidity

in the development of high-speed spindle, independent spindle and electric spindle are adopted. The motorized spindle is a typical structure to realize the "zero transmission" of the main motion system of high-speed machine tools. The speed is mostly 1x10*4~2x10*4r/min, and the speed is as high as 10x10*4~25xl0*4r/min The spindle is also under development

the design of configuring the circulating air conditioning system is to set temperature sensors in some key parts of the processing area to monitor the changes of the temperature field of the machine tool, and the error compensation can be accurate to the micron level through the numerical control system; The dust particles produced in the dry cutting process can be filtered out in time and sucked away by the fan system by using the filtration system. In order to prevent dust from entering the processing area, the spindle components, hydraulic and electrical systems of the machine tool should be strictly isolated

2 dry grinding technology

2.1 quick point grinding technology

quick point grinding technology is a high-efficiency and high flexibility advanced machining process developed by Junker company in Germany in 1994, which integrates three advanced technologies, such as CNC and CBN superhard abrasive, ultra-high speed grinding, and is mainly used for the machining of shaft parts. It uses thin-layer CBN or artificial diamond superhard abrasive wheel, which is an excellent combination of the new generation of CNC turning and ultra-high speed grinding. It is one of the most advanced technical forms of ultra-high speed grinding at present

2.1.1 green characteristics of fast point grinding

1) the sand wheel is in point contact with the workpiece, with the smallest contact area, higher actual grinding speed, greatly reduced grinding force and smaller specific grinding energy. The service life of the grinding wheel is long (up to 1 year), the dressing rate is low, and the rapid installation and positioning system is adopted. The installation of the grinding wheel is fast and simple, and the production efficiency is higher than that of ordinary grinding

2) the grinding force is very small, the workpiece deformation is small, and the machining accuracy is high. Due to ultra-high speed machining, the excitation frequency of the grinding process has been far away from the natural frequency of the "machine tool grinding wheel workpiece" process system; Thus, the vibration, noise and environmental pollution are reduced, and the processing conditions are greatly improved

3) the grinding heat is less, at the same time, the chip can take away most of the heat, and the cooling effect is good, so the grinding temperature is greatly reduced, and even cold processing and dry grinding can be realized. This not only improves the machining accuracy and surface quality It also reduces the environmental pollution caused by the massive use of grinding fluid

4) due to the use of CNC two coordinate linkage to realize the surface grinding of complex rotating parts, the machining of various shapes such as excircles, cones, curved surfaces, grooves, shoulders and grooves can be completed after one installation, which has greater flexibility; It can also process hardened steel and other materials, so that the turning and grinding processes of the workpiece after heat treatment can be combined, which further improves the processing efficiency and the position accuracy of parts. Due to the simplification of processing procedures, the consumption of human, material, energy and resources is reduced, and the processing cost is reduced. Compared with the traditional process, it saves the cost and improves the green degree of the manufacturing process

2.1.2 key technology of fast point grinding

by establishing the model of fast point grinding heat and grinding force, grinding efficiency and grinding wheel wear, people deeply carry out theoretical and Experimental Research on the mechanism of fast point grinding, explore the performance and change law of fast point grinding temperature, grinding efficiency, specific grinding energy, grinding ratio and workpiece surface integrity, and optimize grinding process parameters and wheel characteristic parameters for green manufacturing Basic research on dry green spot grinding process without grinding fluid, so as to establish the technical and theoretical system of green spot grinding

the research of CNC rapid point grinding machine tool focuses on the rapid positioning and installation system of grinding wheel, the automatic control system of electric balance of grinding wheel spindle, the precision guide rail system and the grinding wheel dressing technology, so as to ensure the machining performance of the machine tool

2.2 strong cold air dry grinding technology

this is a new technology successfully developed by Japan. It uses -110 ℃ strong cold air to blow to the processing area to take away the heat generated by grinding. This method replaces the traditional grinding fluid, thus eliminating the environmental pollution caused by the use of grinding fluid

2.2.1 green characteristics of strong cold air dry grinding technology

1) low temperature compressed air is used to replace grinding fluid, realizing cleaner production. This not only saves the cost of purchasing grinding fluid, but also saves the cost of processing grinding fluid. More importantly, the employees of Ping mine group still want to resume production as soon as possible and achieve pollution-free processing

2) wear debris is easy to be directly recycled, saving materials. By setting a special recovery device, the recovery rate of wear debris is guaranteed; At the same time, the use of high-quality CBN grinding wheel greatly reduces the wear of the grinding wheel and ensures the purity of the abrasive powder. Therefore, the composition of the recycled materials after the melting of the wear debris is almost unchanged, which effectively saves the production materials

2.2.2 key technology of strong cold air dry grinding

at present, strong cold air dry grinding is still in its infancy, and there are many topics waiting to be studied

1) in the research on the supply device of strong cold air, according to the processing needs, ensure the nozzle design of the four elements of temperature, flow, pressure and direction of the supply cold air, and the matching between the cooling efficiency of the supply cold air and the grinding amount

2) research on the noise in strong cold air grinding, the atomization of grinding fluid and the adsorption treatment of wear debris. According to the speed of compressed air sprayed by the nozzle, the corresponding silencing device is developed to eliminate the noise. According to the characteristics of strong cold air grinding, the corresponding lubricant supply device is developed to ensure that the lubricant sprays to the surface of the grinding wheel in the form of fog; Develop the matching dust cleaning device to ensure the cleanness of grinding wheel and tooling, and then ensure the machining accuracy

3 conclusion

dry cutting and grinding have good green characteristics and are ideal green manufacturing and processing methods. Vigorously promoting green production technology in the agricultural machinery industry will help to improve the overall manufacturing level of China's agricultural machinery industry and promote the change of agricultural machinery design concept. By adopting green production technology, we can further improve the technical content of agricultural machinery products and promote the faster development of agricultural machinery manufacturing enterprises. (end)

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